BDD Simplified: Understanding Cucumber Framework for Seamless Collaboration

Software development refers to the systematic process of designing, creating, testing, and maintaining software applications or systems. Within this realm, two prominent methodologies that dictate development approaches are Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) and Test-Driven Development (TDD).BDD revolves around aligning the development process with business objectives by emphasizing collaboration among developers, QA engineers, and non-technical stakeholders. On the other hand, TDD is a development approach that places emphasis on writing tests before writing the actual code. In this article let us understand how BDD based development works and beneficial than TDD 

What is Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) ?

BDD as the terms states is an acornym for Behavior-Driven Development (BDD). This development approach is inspried / extended version of Test-Driven Development (TDD).In this approach a feature is developed based on its behaviour. The behaviour is usually explained in terms of plain English or simple terms so that it could be understood by every Technical and Non-Techincal team member involved in development
of this feature

Benefits of BDD:

Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) offers several advantages that contribute to more effective software development processes, improved collaboration, and higher-quality software. Some of the key benefits of BDD include:

  • Early Detection of Issues: Writing scenarios or tests before implementing the code helps uncover potential issues or misunderstandings early in the development cycle.
  • Improved Quality: BDD encourages a test-first approach, ensuring that each piece of code is developed with its corresponding test. This leads to more thoroughly tested code, higher test coverage, and ultimately, better-quality software with fewer bugs and regressions.
  • Enhanced Collaboration: BDD promotes collaboration among various stakeholders involved in the software development process, including developers, QA engineers, business analysts, and non-technical stakeholders.
  • Clearer Requirements: BDD encourages the creation of executable specifications in plain language that define the expected behavior of the software. This leads to clearer and more explicit requirements.
  • Increased Reusability: BDD scenarios and tests can serve as reusable components across different parts of the software. Once written, these specifications can be leveraged for regression testing, reducing redundant efforts in testing similar functionalities.

Cucumber Tool and Its Relation with BDD:

Cucumber is an open-source tool widely used in software development to facilitate Behavior-Driven Development (BDD).Cucumber supports BDD by providing a framework for defining, writing, and automating acceptance tests in a human-readable format.

  • Gherkin Language: Cucumber uses Gherkin, a plain-text language, to define executable specifications.
  • Feature Files: Scenarios written in Gherkin are saved in feature files. These files contain multiple scenarios outlining different functionalities or behaviors of the software.
  • Step Definitions: Cucumber separates feature files’ human-readable scenarios from the automation code by utilizing step definitions.
  • Integration with Testing Frameworks: Cucumber integrates seamlessly with various testing frameworks, such as JUnit, TestNG, and NUnit for Java; RSpec for Ruby, among others.
  • Execution and Reporting: Cucumber executes the scenarios defined in feature files, linking them with step definitions to perform automated testing.It generates detailed reports that provide insights into test results, highlighting which scenarios passed, failed, or encountered errors.

How a Scenario is Written Using BDD?

Let us now write an example how a scenario is written using Gherkin Language.

  • Given Keyword represents the preconditions that are to be met before doing some action
  • When Keyword represents any action or event done by the User
  • Then Keyword represents Assertion that needs to be done after every event or group of events by the User


					Scenario: Verify User is able to Login to FaceBook
Given browser is launched 
And user navigates to facebook login Page
When user provides inputs for username and password
And user clicks on login button
Then verify user is on login page


In conclusion, Cucumber stands as a powerful tool that significantly contributes to the success of Behavior-Driven Development (BDD).By employing Cucumber within the BDD framework, software development teams benefit from improved communication, clearer requirements, and a user-centric approach to development. Ultimately, Cucumber’s support for BDD helps teams deliver higher-quality software that aligns closely with user expectations and business objectives.

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